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Professor Linda Zou 

Position: Adjunct Professor Professor Linda Zou
Division/Portfolio: Division of Information Technology, Engineering and the Environment
School/Unit: School of Natural and Built Environments
Group: Centre for Water Management and Reuse
Campus: Mawson Lakes Campus
Office: H3-31
Telephone: +61 8 830 25489
Fax: +61 8 830 23386
Email: Linda_dot_Zou_at_unisa_dot_edu_dot_au
URL for Business Card: http://people.unisa.edu.au/Linda.Zou

Professor Linda Zou received her PhD in chemistry from Monash University (1998). Her main research contributions are in the fields of novel nanomaterials synthesis, including ordered mesoporous carbons, conductive graphene nano-sheets and visible light sensitive TiO2/prorous adsorbent nano-composites, and their application to solve “real world” problems, in desalination and water purification. In desalination research, Dr Zou has focused on applying nanotechnology in low energy alternative desalination methods. Her contribution in developing novel carbons electrode materials in capacitive deionisation process has achieved greatly improved electrode efficiency and is received recognition internationally. Her recent research work involves on developing novel membrane surfaces for low biofouling. From 2000 until now, Professor Linda Zou has been successful in receiving ten national competitive ARC grants and National Centre of Excellence in Desalination (NCED) grants. She currently leads one Discovery project and three NCED funded research projects. Her research outcomes have been well published on peer reviewed international journals and she is a regular presenter at prestige International Water Association Conferences. She is the main inventor of one international patent and three provisional patents, and has attracted substantial funding for industrial related R & D. Dr Zou is the principal supervisor of 7 PhD students.

Employment history in Australia:

1999-2003 Lecturer, School of Engineering and Technology, Deakin University.

2004-2005 Senior Lecturer, School of Engineering and Technology, Deakin University.

2006-May 2008 Associate Professor, Institute for Sustainability and Innovation, Victoria University.

June 2008- December 2010 Associate Professor, SA Water Centre for Water Management and Reuse, School of Natural and Built Environment, University of South Australia.

January 2011- Present, Research Professor,University of South Australia

Links to other sites

Prof Linda Zou's Research Group: Nanotechnology and Membrane in Desalination

Teaching interests

  • Advanced Materials Undergraduate Program -Advanced Materials and Water

Professional associations

Current Member of The American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)

Current member of American Chemical Society (ACS)

Current member of International Water Association (IWA)

Current member of International Desalination Association (IDA)

Current member of Australian Water Association (AWA)

Fellow Member (F.I.C.C.E.) International Congress of Chemistry and Environment


PhD Monash University

MEng Asian Institute of Technology

BEng Beijing University of Technology

Research interests

  • Developing novel carbon based electrode materials for low energy alternative desalination processes
  • Membrane surface modification for fouling resistance
  • Synthesize nano-structured materials for environmental applications, such as TiO2/porpous nanocomposites
  • Desalination brine waste treatment
  • Membrane filtration for fit for purpose water reuse/recycle
  • Using combined advanced oxidation processes to treat the industrial effluent for water reuse.

Research publications

Y. Chun, F. Zaviska, E. Cornelissen,L. Zou “A case study of fouling development and flux reversibility of treating actual lake water by forward osmosis process” , Desalination, 357(2015), Pages 55–64.

F. Zaviska and L. Zou "Using modelling approach to validate a bench scale forward osmosis pre-treatment process for desalination", Desalination 350(2014), pp. 1-13.

Y. Wimalasiri, M. Mossad, L. Zou “Thermodynamics and kinetics of adsorption of ammonium ions by graphene laminate electrodes in capacitive deionization”, Desalination, 357 (2015), Pages 178–188.

Y. Wimalasiri, R. Fan, G. Zhao and L. Zou "Assembly of Ni-Al layered double hydroxide and graphene electrodes for supercapacitors" Electrochimica Acta 134 (2014) pp. 127-135

1. Y. Zhang, L. Zou, B. P. Ladewig, D. Mulcahy “ Synthesis and characterization of superhydrophilic conductive heterogeneous PANI/PVDF anion-exchange membranes” Desalination, 362 (2015), Pages 59-67.

C. Yan, Y. Wimalasiri, R. Short, C. Gibson, L. Zou "Graphene/polyaniline nanocomposite as electrode material for membrane capacitive deionization", Desalinattion, 344C (2014), pp. 274-279

J. Yang,L. Zou "Graphene films of controllable thickness as binder-free electrodes for high performance supercapacitors" Electrochimica Acta. 134(2014) pp.791-799.

S. Azari , L. Zou, E. Cornelissen "Assessing the effect of surface modification of polyamide RO membrane by L-DOPA on the short range physiochemical interactions with biopolymer fouling on the membrane". Colliods and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces. 120 (2014) pp. 222-228.

A. Nguyen, L. Zou, C. Priest "Evaluating the antifouling effects of silver "nanoparticles regenerated by TiO2 on forward osmosis membrane". Journal of Membrane Science. Vol 454 (2014) pp 264-271.

B. Zhu, Z Hong, N. Milne, C. M. Doherty, L. Zou, Y.S. Lin e, A. J. Hill, X. Gu, M. Duke,"Desalination of seawater ion complexes by MFI-type zeolite membranes: Temperature and long term stability" Journal of Membrane Science vol 453 (2014) pp 126-135.

C. Yan, L. Zou, R. Short "Polyaniline-modified activated carbon electrodes for capacitive deionisation" Finally accepted by Desalination vol 333 (2014) pp 101-106

J. Yang, and L. Zou "Using recyclable calcium citrate templates to prepare mesoporous carbons as electrodes for capacitive deionization". Microporous & Mesoporous Materials. Vol 183 (2014) pp 91-98.

S. Azari and L. Zou "Fouling resistant zwitterionic surface modification of reverse osmosis membranes using small amino acid L-cysteine", Desalination, Vol 324,(2013) pp79-86.

P. Hojati-Talemi, L. Zou, M. Fabretto, and R. D. Short "Using oxygen plasma treatment to improve the performance of electrodes for capacitive water deionization" Electrochimica Acta Vol 106, pp494-499.

W. Zhang, M. Mossad, L. Zou 2013 "A Study of the long-term operation of capacitive deionisation in inland brackish water desalination', Desalination,(2013) Vol 320, pp80-85.

S. Azari, L. Zou, E. Cornelissen and Y. Mukai "Facile fouling resistant surface modification of microfiltration cellulose acetate membranes by using amino acid L-DOPA" Water Science and Technology, Vol 68.4, (2013)pp901-908.

K. Wimalasiri and L. Zou 2013 "Carbon nanotube/graphene composite for enhanced capacitive deionization performance" CARBON, Vol 59, pp464-471.

M. Mossad and L. Zou "Evaluation of the salt removal efficiency of capacitive deionisation: kinetics, isotherms and thermodynamics" Chemical Engineering Journal. Vol 223,(2013) pp 704-713.

B. Jia and L. Zou 2013 "Langmuir-Blodgett assembly of sulphonated graphene nanosheets into single- and multi-layered thin films' Chemical Physics Letters. Vol 568-569, pp 101-105.

B. Zhu, C. Doherty, X. Huc, A. J. Hill, L. Zou, Y.S. Lin, M. Duke "Designing hierarchical porous features of ZSM-5 zeolites via Si/Al ratio and their dynamic behavior in seawater ion complexes" Microporous and Mesoporous Materials 173 (2013) 78–85.

J. Yang, L. Zou, N. R. Choudhury 2013 "Ion-selective carbon nanotube electrodes in capacitive deionisation" Electrochimica Acta. Vol 91, pp. 11-19

A. Nugyen, S. Azari, L. Zou 2013 "Coating zwitterionic amino acid L-DOPA to increase fouling resistance of forward osmosis membrane" Desalination. Special Issue: Advances in FO. Vol 312, pp.82-87.

M. Mossad and L. Zou 2013 "Study of fouling and scaling in capacitive deionization by using dissolved organic and inorganic salts", Journal of Hazardous Materials. Vol 244-245, pp 387-393

M. Mossad, W. Zhang, L. Zou 2013 "Using capacitive deionisation for inland brackish groundwater desalination in a remote location", Desalination, Vol 308, pp154-160.

B. Jia and L. Zou 2012 "Wettability and its influence on graphene nansoheets as electrode material for capacitive deionization" Chemical Physics Letter. Vol 548, pp23-28.

M. Mossad and L. Zou, 2012 "A study of the capacitive deionisation performance under various operational conditions" Journal of Hazardous Materials. Vol 213-214, pp. 491-497.

S. Azari and L. Zou 2012 "Using zwitterionic amino acid L-DOPA to modify the surface of thin film composite polyamide reverse osmosis membranes to increase their fouling resistance " Journal of Membrane Science. Vol 401-402, pp. 68-75.

C. Yan, L. Zou and R. Short 2012 "Single-walled carbon nanotubes and polyaniline composites for capacitive deionization" Desalination. Vol 290, pp.125-129.

B. Jia and L. Zou 2012 "Graphene nanosheets reduced by a multi-step process as high-performance electrode material for capacitive deionisation" Carbon. Vol 50, pp. 2315-2321.

S. Zhao, L. Zou, C. Y. Tang, D. Mulcahy 2012 "Recent developments in forward osmosis: Opportunities and challenges" Journal of Membrane Science,Vol 396, pp.1-21.

J. Yang and L. Zou and H. Song 2012 "Preparing MnO2/PSS/CNTs composite electrodes by layer-by-layer deposition of MnO2 in the membrane capacitive deionisation" Desalination. Vol 286, pp108-114.

S Zhao, L. Zou, D. Mulcahy 2012 "Brackish water desalination by a hybrid forward osmosis-nanofiltration system using divalent draw solute", Desalination, Vol 284, pp175-181

L. Zou 2011 Chapter 15 “Developing nano-structured carbon electrodes for capacitive brackish wtaer desalination”, Expanding Issues in Desalination, InTech pp301-318, avaialble online September 2011.

L. Zou 2011 Chapter 8 “Graphene-like electrodes for capacitive deionisation” Graphene: Properties, Synthesis and Applications, Nova Science Publisher (In-press).

S. Zhao, L. Zou and D. Mulcahy 2011 "Effects of membrane orientation on process performance in forward osmosis applications" Journal of Membrane Science Vol 382, pp308-315

S. Zhao and L. Zou "Relating solution physicochemical properties to internal concentration polarization in forward osmosis" Journal of Membrane Science, Vol 379, pp459-467.

S. Zhao, L. Zou 2011 "Effects of working temperature on separation performance, membrane scaling and cleaning in forward osmosis" Desalination, Vol 278, pp 157-164.

J. Yang, L. Zou, H, Song, Z. Hao 2011 "Novel MnO2/nanoporous carbon composites electrodes in capacitive deionization process" Desalination, Vol 276, pp. 199-206.

S. M. Mrayed, P. Sanciolo, L. Zou and G. Leslie 2011 “An alternative membrane treatment process to produce low-salt and high-nutrient recycled water suitable for irrigation purposes” Desalination Vol 274. pp.144-149.

H. Li and L. Zou 2011 "Ion-exchange Membrane Capacitive Deionization: A New Strategy for Brackish Water Desalination" Desalination. Vol 275. pp62-66.

W. Zhang, L. Zou and L. Wang 2011 "A novel charge-driven self-assembly method to prepare visible-light sensitive TiO2/activated carbon composites for dissolved organic compound removal", Chemical Engineering Journal, Vol 168, pp485-492.

H, Li, W, Zhang, L. Zou, L. Pan and Z. Sun 2011 "An environmentally friendly approach to synthesis TiO2-graphene composites via visible light photocatalytic reduction of graphene oxide" Journal of Materials Research,Vol 26, pp. 970-973.

L. Zou, I. Vidalis, D. Steele, A. Michelmore, S.P. Low, J.Q.J.C. Verberk 2010 "Surface hydrophilic modification of RO membranes by plasma polymerization for low organic fouling". Journal of Membrane Science, Vol 369, pp. 420-428.

H. Li, L. Zou, L. Pan, Z. Sun 2010 "Novel graphene-like electrodes for capacitive deionization" Environmental Science & Technology, Vol 44, pp. 8692-9687.

Q. Shen, W. Zhang, Z. Hao and L. Zou 2010 "A Study on the Synergistic Adsorptive and Photocatalytic Activities of TiO2-xNx/Beta Composite Catalysts under Visible Light Irradiation", Chemical Engineering Journal, vol 165 pp.301-309

J. Xu, G. Ruan, L, Zou and C. Gao 2010 "Effect of chlorine and acid injectino on hollow fiber RO for SWRO" Desalination, vol 262, pp.115-120.

A. Rathinam and L. Zou 2010 "Biosorption of Bovine Serum Albumin by Ulva lactuca Biomass from Industrial Wastewater: Equilibrium, Kinetic and Thermodynamic Study" Journal of Hazardous Materials, Vol 184, pp 597-902.

H. Li, L. Zou, L. Pan, Z. Sun 2010 "Using graphene nano-flakes as electrodes to remove ferric ions by capacitive deionisation" Separation and Purification Technology, Vol 75, pp8-14.

W. Zhang, L. Zou and L. Wang 2010 "Visible-light assisted methylene blue (MB) removal by novel TiO2/adsorbent nanocomposites" Water Science and Technology, vol 61, pp. 2863-2871.

B. Zhu, L. Zou, C. Doherty, A. J. Hill, Y. S. Lin, X. Hu, H. Wang and M. Duke 2010 "Investigation of the effects of ion and water interaction on structure and chemistry of silicalite MFI type zeolite for its potential use as a seawater desalination membrane" Journal of materials Chemistry. Vol 20, pp4675-4683.

W. Zhang, L. Zou, L. Wang "Photocatalytic TiO2/adsorbent nanocomposites prepared via wet chemical impregnation for wastewater treatment: A review" Applied Catalysis A: General 2009 vol 371 pp1-9.

H. Li, L. Pan, Y. Zhang, L. Zou, C. Sun, Y. Zhan and Z. Sun, ¡§Kinetics and thermodynamics study for electrosorption of NaCl onto carbon nanotubes and carbon nanofibers electrodes¡¨ Chemical Physics Letters 2010. Vol 480, pp161-166.

B. Zhu and L. Zou "Trapping and decomposing of colour compounds from recycled water by TiO2 coated activated carbon" Journal of Environmental Management 2009 90 pp3217-3225.

H. Tian, J. Li, Q. Shen, H. Wang, Z. Hao, L. Zou , Q. Hu "Using shell-tunable mesoporous Fe3O4 @HMS and magnetic separation to remove DDT frm aqueous media" Journal of hazardous Materials 171 pp459-464.

L. Li, L. Zou, H Song and G Morris "Ordered mesoporous carbons synthesized by a modified sol-gel process for electrosorptive removal of sodium chloride" Carbon 2009 vol 47 pp775-781.

B. Zhu, L. Zou "Removal of colour compounds from recycled water using combined activated carbon adsorption and AOP decomposition" Journal of Advanced Oxidation Technologies 2009 Vol 12, No.1. pp47-54.

X. D. Dai, L. Zou, Z. F. Yan and M. McMillen ¡§Adsorption characteristics of N-nitrosodimethylamine from aqueous solution on surface-modified activated carbon. 2009 Journal of Hazardous Materials Vol 168 pp51-56.

H. Tian, J. Li, L. Zou, Z. Mu and Z. Hao "Removal of DDT from aqueous solutions using mesoporous silica materials" Journal of Chemical Technology and Biotechnology. 2009 84 pp490-496

L. Zou and B Zhu, 2009 "emoval of colour and trace organic matters from recycled wastewater"in Sewage Treatment: Uses, Processes and Impact, NOVA Science Publishers, Hauppauge, NY USA. pp 325-339.

P Sanciolo, L Zou, G Leslie "Using MF-NF-RO Train to Produce Low Salt and High Nutrient Value Recycled Water for Agriculture Irrigation" Water Science and Technology 2008 Vol 58(9)pp1837-1840.

L. Zou, H. Song, L. Li and G. Morris "Uing mesoporous carbon electrodes for water desalination"Water Research 2008 Vol 42, pp2340-2348.

L. Zou and B. Zhu "he synergistic effect of ozonation and photocatalysis on color removal from reused water"Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology A: Chemistry. 2008 Vol 196 pp24-32.

S. S. Tan, L. Zou, E. Hu, "inetic modeling for photosynthesis of hydrogen and methane through catalytic reduction of carbon dioxide with water vapour" Catalysis Today 2008 Vol 131, pp125-129.

P. Sanciolo, L. Zou, S. Gray, G. Leslie and D. Stevens, 2008 "Accelerated seeded precipitation pretreatment of municipal wastewater to reduce scaling" Chemophere Vol 72, pp 243-249.

L. Zou, D. Qi and G. Morris 2008 "Low Cost Activated Carbon Electrosorptive Deionisation Technology in Brackish Water Desalination" Desalination Vol 225 pp 329-340

L. Zou and B. Zhu, 2007 "Enhancing the reuse of treated effluent by photocatalytic process" Journal of Advanced Oxidation Technologies Vol 10, No 2 pp 273-281.

D. Qi, L. Zou and E. Hu, 2007 "Electrosorption; An alternative option for desalination" Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment Vol 11(3) pp 92-95

M. L. Ackland, L. Zou, D. Freestone, S. van de Waasenburg, A. A Michalczyk 2007 "Diesel exhaust particulate matter induces formation of multinucleate cells and apoptosis through a zinc transporter-dependent pathway in human airway cells". Immunology and Cell Biology. 85 pp 617-622.

L. Y. Zou, Y. Luo, M. Hooper and E. Hu 2006 "Removal of VOCs photocatalysis process using adsorption enhanced TiO2-SiO2 catalyst" Chemical Engineering and Process Vol 45, pp 959-964.

L. Zou, Y. Luo and E. J. Hu 2007 "Using titania photocatalysts to degrade toluene in a combined adsorption and photocatalytic process" Journal of Advanced Oxidation technologies Vol 10 No1 pp 31-36

Y. Luo, L. Zou and E. Hu, 2006 "Enhanced degradation efficiency of toluene using titania/silica photocatalysis as a regeneration process" Environmental Technology Vol 27 pp 359-366 .

D. Qi, E. Hu and L. Zou, 2006 "Reverse osmosis membrane fouling and its control" Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment Vol 10 (3) September.

P. Bankowski, L. Zou, and R. Hodges 2006 "A case study on stabilisation and reuse of geopolymer-encapsulated brown coal fly ash" International Journal of Sustainable Development and Planning, Vol 1, (1) pp 1-15.

S. S. Tan, L. Zou and E. Hu, 2006 "Photocatalytic reduction of CO2 into gaseous hydrocarbons using TiO2 pellets" Catalysis Today Vol 115 (1-4) pp 269-273.

L. Zou, Y.-T. Hung and L. K. Wang, 2006 "Wet air oxidation for waste treatment" in Advanced physicochemical Treatment Process, The Humana Press, Inc., Totowa, NJ USA.

L. Zou, Y. Li and E. Hu, 2005 "Photocatalytic decolorisation of Lanasol Blue CE dye solution using a flat plate reactor" Journal of Environmental Engineering, Vol 131, (1), pp 102-107.

Y. Luo, L. Zou, E. Hu 2005 "A comparative study on preparation of TiO2 pellets as photocatalysts based on different precursors" Materials Science Forum, Vol 475-470, pp 4165-4170.

P. Bankowski, L. Zou and R. Hodges, 2004 "Reduction of metal leaching in brown coal fly ash using geopolymers", Journal of Hazardous Materials, Vol 114, (1-3), pp 59-67.

P. Bankowski, L. Zou and R. Hodges, 2004 "Using inorganic polymer to reduce leach rates of metals from brown coal fly ash", Mineral Engineering Vol 17 (2), pp 159-166.

L. Zou and S. Atkinson 2003 "Characterising the biodiesel vehicle emissions from the burning of biodiesel made from vegetable oil¡¨ made from vegetable oil" Environmental Technology vol 24 (10), pp 1253-1260.

P. Bankowski, L. Zou and Ray Hodges 2004 "Using inorganic polymer to reduce leach rates of metals from brown coal fly ash", Mineral Engineering, vol 17 (2), pp159-166.

E. Hu, L. Zou, and C. Langston, 2004 "A new interlink decision making index for making multi-criteria decisions" The Australian journal of Construction Economics and Building, Vol 4 (2), pp 33-42,.

Y. Li, L. Zou and E. Hu, 2004 "Photocatalytic degradation of dye effluent by titanium dioxide pillar pellets in aqueous solution" Journal of Environmental Sciences, Vol 16, (3), pp 375-379.

E. Hu, L. Zou and M. Roberts 2003 "Interlink Decision Making Index (IDMI)--A simple tool/concept to assist decision making for sustainability Part 1: Definition of IDMI" MACRO REVIEW: The Review of Japan Macro-Engineers Society, Special Issue Vol 16, (1), ISSN 0915-0560, pp 261-265.

E. Hu, L. Zou and M. Roberts 2003 "Interlink Decision Making Index (IDMI)--A simple tool/concept to assist decision making for sustainability Part 2:Calculation and examples of IDMI" MACRO REVIEW: The Review of Japan Macro-Engineers Society, Special Issue Vol 16, (1), ISSN 0915-0560, pp 266-270.

L. Zou, W. Zhang and S. Atkinson 2003 "The characterisation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons emissions from burning of different firewood species in Australia" Environmental Pollution vol 124 (2), pp 283-289.

Expertise for Media Contact

I am able to provide media comment in the following areas of expertise:

Discipline: Water treatment technolgoies

  • Alternative low energy capacitive desalination
  • Membrane filtration
  • Nanotechnology in water purtification
  • Advanced matierials in water application
  • Desalination waste issues

Research Degree Supervisor


• ‘Composite conductive electrodes for low energy desalination’ (ARC Discovery, 2010-2012)

• “High peformance conductive mesoporous carbon electrodes: a low energy desalination alternative” (2008-2011, ARC Linkage, industrial partner: Docklands Science Park).

• ‘Materials engineering solutions for tomorrow’s water resources’ (ARC Linkage, 2010-2012)

• “New nanocomposites of porous materials and visible light sensitive TiO2 for efficient wastewater purification” (2008-2011, ARC Linkage, industry partner: City West Water)

• “Designing the surface and structural properties of MFI zeolite membranes for low energy ion selective desalination” (2008-2011, ARC Discovery)

• ‘Capacitive deionisation for high recovery and low energy desalination of brackish water supplies’ (2010–2011, funded by Water Quality Research Australia)

• ‘Developing highly conductive electrodes for capacitive desalination’ (2010–2011, funded by National Centre of Excellence in Desalination).

• ‘Application of capacitive deionisatio nin inland brackish water desalination’ (2011–2012, funded by National Centre of Excellence in Desalination).

• “Improving aesthetic quality by removing colour and trace organics from treated wastewater for recycle” (2006-2008, industrial partners: Victoria Water industry and NanoVic)

• “Integrated membrane systems-opportunities for designer reclaimed water” (2006-2008, industry partner: Victoria Water industry)

• “Optimising the UV protection of textiles with nano zinc oxide” (Funded by ARC Linkage grant 2006-2008, LP067830 Industry partner: Micronisers)

• “Titanium /silicon dioxide nanostructured materials” (Funded by Nanotechnology Victoria 2005-2006).

• “Removal of low level toxic air pollutants from car cabins by photocatalytic oxidation” (Funded by ARC- Linkage grant 2003-2005, industrial partner, Air International)

• “Optimisation of fuel consumption and vehicle emission by simulating the integrated air conditioning and engine controls” (Funded by ARC-Linkage grant 2004-2006, industrial partner: Air International)

• “Hybrid cooling for coal fired power station” (Funded by ARC-Linkage grant 2006-2008, Industry partner: Anglesea Power Station)

• “Stabilisation of brown coal fly ash to minimise leaching by geopolymer before landfill disposal” (Funded by ARC-Linkage grant in 2001-2003, industry partner: Hazelwood Power Station)

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